Even if, for example, a restriction within the meaning of Mitchel and Addyston Pipe is necessary and complementary, it may constitute an inappropriate restriction on trade if their anti-competitive effects and the resulting harm to the public interest outweigh their advantages. So, in the Polygram case, Justice Ginsburg said, what prompted you to seek the reluctance of marriage? Please let us know where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). A contractual obligation to be non-negotiable is null and void and unen applicable to the promisor, as it is contrary to public policy of trade promotion, unless the restriction of trade is appropriate to protect the interests of the buyer of a business.  Trade restrictions may also appear in restrictive agreements in employment contracts after termination. The limitation of commercial doctrine is based on the two concepts of prohibition of agreements contrary to public policy, unless the adequacy of an agreement can be demonstrated. A trade restriction is simply a kind of agreed provision that aims to restrict the trade of another. For example, nordenfelt v Maxim, Nordenfelt Guns and Ammunition Co, a Swedish inventor of weapons when selling his business to a U.S. arms manufacturer, promised that it “would not produce weapons or ammunition anywhere in the world and would not compete in any way with Maxim.” The Supreme Court`s 1911 decision in Standard Oil Company of New Jersey v. the United States was based on Taft`s analysis of the rule of reason. In this case, the court found that a treaty violated the Sherman Act only if the treaty “inappropriately” restricts trade, that is, if the treaty has monopoly consequences. According to the Court of Justice, a wider importance would prohibit normal and customary treaties, thus violating freedom of contract. The Court therefore upheld the rule of reason in Addyston Pipe, which in turn stems from Mitchel/Reynolds and the Common Law of Restraints of Trade.
This followed at Broad v Jolyffe and Mitchel v Reynolds, where Lord Macclesfield asked, “What does it mean for a merchant in London, what does another in Newcastle?” In these times of such slow communication and trade throughout the country, it seemed axiomatic that general restraint served no legitimate purpose for business and should be null and void. . . .